The Three Modes of Communication

ACTFL Performance

 There Are Three Types of Communication in Any Language

1. Interpersonal Communication:

Learners interact and negotiate meaning in spoken, signed, or written conversations to share information, reactions, feelings, and opinions.
a. Active negotiation of meaning among individuals.
b. Participants observe and monitor one another to see how their meanings and intentions are being communicated.
c. Adjustments and clarifications are made accordingly.
d. Speaking and listening (conversation); reading and writing (text messages or via social media)
 ‚Äč2Interpretive Communication involves the following:

Learners understand, interpret, and analyze what is heard, read, or viewed on a variety of topics.
a. Interpretation of what the author, speaker, or produces wants the receiver of the message to understand.
b. One-way communication with no recourse to the active negotiation of meaning with the writer, speaker, or producer.
c. Interpretation differs from comprehension and translation in that interpretation implies the ability to read (or listen or view) "between the lines," including understanding from within the cultural mindset or perspective.
d. Reading (websites, stories, articles), listening (speeches, messages, songs), or viewing (video clips) of authentic materials.
3. Presentational Communication involves the following:

a. Creation of messages.
b. One-way communication intended to facilitate interpretation by members of the other culture where no direct opportunity for the active negotiation of meaning between members of the two cultures exists.
c. To ensure intended audience is successful in its interpretation, the "presenter" needs knowledge of the audience's language and culture.
d. Writing (messages, articles, reports), speaking (telling a story, giving a speech, describing a poster), or visually representing (video or PowerPoint).